The Letters of Faith™
For Seekers and Disciples
YEHOSHUA ha Mashiach.
(Yeh-hO-Shue-Ah ha Ma-she-ah)
(Jesus the Messiah)
Welcome to The Letters of Faith™.
The Letters of Faith™ have been in online use since 1988, and we continue our teaching ministry today thru The Exalted Name Bible™ website. Welcome!
As used worldwide online, The Letters have been a blessed instrument of Christian teaching and discipleship training since 1988. More than that though, The Letters have been a conduit thru which we have ministered to, and been ministered by, multiple-thousands of Brothers and Sisters of faith. And, we have been blessed to talk with very many people who were seeking Spiritual Truth.
Over three million visitors have discovered and read The Letters of Faith. So again, Welcome! If there is anything we can do to assist in your search for Truth, please do let us know. We are here for just that reason.
The Letters of Faith™ – Purpose:
The Letters are designed to help every seeker discover our Father, thru Yehoshua, His Son. Ultimately, we pray that all of humanity would have a deep spiritual and personal relationship with our Father and His Son, in The Holy Spirit.
Although The Letters are topically driven, they contain random replies to questions asked over a number of years, and are now set forth in a pattern that many visitors find helpful.
Furthermore, The Letters uphold the very strict defense of the Inerrancy of Scripture – to the highest degree. “Thus says The Lord” is the backbone of Scripture, from the first Word of Genesis, to the last Word of Revelation. We teach and abide (prayerfully) in adherence to that strict standard.
Finally, The Letters of Faith™ are a Study Tool, and are not a quick read. For me, reading each letter takes about an hour – on average. As a study tool, therefore, with many Scriptural references provided, The Letters are a guide to discovery.
So please, take your time and discover…
The Learning Process:
Individually, each letter is meant to help every seeker, and/or disciple, gain the maximum knowledge, as quickly as possible. Since we all learn at our own pace, though, this work becomes even more helpful, because you set your pace. The subject matter is here at your disposal, and it is available whenever you want or need. And they will always be free!
The Letters of Faith™ and The Exalted Name Bible™:
The connectivity between The Letters of Faith™ and The Exalted Name Bible™ is beyond measure. Everything occurred in a natural progression of events, spanning a fifteen year period. (Well after our initial startup in 1988)…
As I was attempting to answer questions regarding The Trinity, I stumbled upon a perceived contradiction in Scripture. The contradiction does not exist, but in learning that fact, I discovered The Exalted Name! And, inserting the Exalted Name(s) into The Letters is the primary change from the original series of Letters posted so long ago.
Therefore, all Scriptural quotations used throughout The Letters of Faith™ (unless otherwise noted), come from The Exalted Name Bible™. And, just as inserting The Exalted Names profoundly impacted Scripture, their insertion into The Letters has equaled that impact.
The Letters of Faith™ – How did The Exalted Name Bible™ come about?
Letter 22: Oneness & The Trinity – and The Exalted Names of Elohim (God), details the events of discovery leading to The Exalted Name, and The Exalted Name Bible™. Furthermore, it details how that Name has impacted The Letters of Faith™.
Although letter 22 is a recent posting, if you require a deeper explanation for the words, titles and Names used throughout The ENB™ and The Letters of Faith™, it may be prudent to begin reading these letters at that point, then going back to Letter 1.
Tremendous explanation for those words, titles and Names, however, is provided at the outset of The ENB™, but if you wish to know HOW those matters were ‘discovered’, or how they unfolded over the years, reading Letter 22 will provide the answers you seek. Otherwise, reading The Letters in their normal sequence will allow a familiarity with this author to develop naturally, with an unfolding of events to occur in that process as well.
For many, though, without knowing about the discovery, everything else may sound foreign and out of place, but with that knowledge, it will all seem to meld together quite nicely.
The Letters of Faith™ – Eight vital Names & Titles:
Eight Names and titles deserve our consideration and study, and the introductory page to The Exalted Name Bible™, The Exalted Name, and it’s dropdown page, Other Names and Words, with its dropdown pages, explain those Names and titles in full. For your immediate consideration, though, those eight vital and/or “EXALTED” Names and titles are:
- YEHOWAH: The Exalted Name of the Old Covenant! This IS “The Lord” Who spoke to the fathers (Abraham, Isaac and Israel) and to Moses and Aaron as well.
- YEH: The abbreviated version of The Exalted Name!
- EL: Literal singular translation of the word currently interpreted as “God”.
- ELOHIM: Literal plural translation of the word currently interpreted as “God”.
- YEHOSHUA: The only correct and full Name of the Messiah. (The name JESUS is NOT His proper name. As explained, Jesus cannot be His proper name).
- Messiah: Replaced in current Bibles by the title, “Christ” for unknown reasons.
- Master: Always correctly translated as His Title/Position, instead of the loosely translated, “Lord”, which should apply only to humans and/or possibly angels.
- Lord/lord: Herein used as the title is intended.
The Letters of Faith™ – About The Author:
I think too, that you might consider reading the, “About the Author” page. Knowing who I am, and where I am from, may provide confidence in this presentation.
I believe in (and support) the Inerrancy of Scripture:
Collectively, The Letters of Faith™ offer an uncompromising defense for the inerrant truth of Scripture. Throughout these pages, therefore, you will discover a firm preservation and defense of the wholeness and inerrant fullness of Scripture. While humanity wishes to diminish and discard Biblical significance and Truth today, these writings stand directly opposite to those wishes. In its originally inspired form, the Bible contains no errors whatsoever.
I believe in (support and promote) everything – In Defense of our Creator:
Similarly, The Letters of Faith also present an uncompromising defense of the One True Creator. We defend Elohim (God) today, in obedience to His commands. And, we defend how The Father, The Son and The Holy Spirit created, and now deal with, this creation. Who is mankind to question the means or motives of a Holy and Righteous King and Creator?
I also believe (and promote) that Absolutes Exist:
The very heart of The Letters is based upon the fact that Biblical absolutes exist. And because these absolutes exist, we confidently exert that Scripture is the foundation of understanding, knowledge, wisdom and life. Yehoshua ha Mashiach Himself being the cornerstone of His creation and Truth.
Wherever and whenever possible, therefore, The Letters will show and prove Scriptural absolutes and truth. This process alone makes The Letters of Faith™ a rare read in today’s relativistic, humanistic and synthetic age.
Every effort has been made to provide the fullness of Elohim’s truth to you. Therefore, to support every conclusion drawn throughout The Letters, every relevant Scriptural reference is provided. And this is true within every Letter itself, and in the Concordance provided.
The Letters of Faith™ – Intentions:
The Letters of Faith™ are intended for anyone seeking the truth about Elohim (God). If you are merely looking to have your senses tickled, you’re wasting your time here. Great patience is expended in a sincere attempt to convince every student / disciple of the truth of Scripture.
We labor to convince every reader that we serve The One True Living Elohim. And, we strive to assist every reader reach the path of righteousness and rightness in a personal relationship with Elohim.
The Letters of Faith™ – Uncompromising:
The only way to our Heavenly Father is thru Yehoshua ha Mashiach, and we do not stray from that Truth.
We will not compromise this teaching to satisfy any specific religious bent. Nor will we bend Scripture to accommodate society’s thoughts, whims or fashionable trends.
Humanity, including many within the ‘church’, has abandoned the fullness of the truth found within Scripture. Therefore, it is the intent of The Letters to aid in the restoration of the fullness of His teaching in the hearts of His Children.
To the unsaved and unknowing, we offer these pages in the love of Yehoshua, praying for your enlightenment.
We will not compromise the truth of His Word, however, in order to accommodate humanity’s interpretation of ‘love’, nor will we compromise the fullness of Elohim’s Love to accommodate humanity’s false interpretations and implementations of His Word.
The fullness of Scripture stands behind these teachings. If you believe an error exists within these pages, prove it by and through His Word, and we will correct any and every error! I am an obedient student as well…
The Letters of Faith™ – Personal Touch:
The Letters are written in an extremely personal format. This is attributable to the fact that they really did originate as literal letters to beloved friends or seekers of the truth.
While all private information has been removed from The Letters, the primary objective of helping the lost in their search for the truth, or training the disciples once the truth has been found, has not been lost.
The Letters of Faith are Progressive – Not Stagnant:
Due to the progressive nature of The Letters, you will discover a natural transformation developing in their form and content. This transformation presents itself naturally as The Letters proceed from teaching the Seeker, to assisting the Disciple.
Frequently, as students acquire knowledge, and apply that knowledge in their daily walk, a spiritual transition occurs. A number of our “seekers” have found The Truth about our Messiah thru these pages, and have advanced from seeker to those who have found; Found Yehoshua ha Mashiach (Jesus the Messiah) as their person Master, Messiah and King.
The rebirth process then transitions that newly born believer into that of an obedient disciple… The Letters are not stagnant. Praise be!
The Letters provide Two Tiers of learning:
In relatable terms, then, you can understand our progression of thought – and faith. And that transition has caused The Letters to be presented in two tiers:
The first ten letters are addressed to, “Dear Seeker”, and are foundational in content.
These letters are useful to anyone who does not know Elohim (God), but who is seeking to know about Him and about His Word. Every person’s search for the truth of Scripture, and their hunt for the One True Elohim (God), is laden with questions. The Letters of Faith™ sincerely attempt to answer those questions.
Feeding while teaching:
While answering questions, though, a tremendous amount of food for further thought and growth, is added as well.
Nonjudgmental but purposeful:
Additionally, we have sincerely attempted to offer a nonjudgmental approach toward the personal search for Biblical knowledge. The purpose for our approach is to impart the fullness and truth of Yehoshua ha Mashiach (Jesus the Messiah), without finger pointing.
First and foremost, you need to understand that I am a FORGIVEN sinner!
Yes, a sinner like every other human… I am prone to error just as every man or woman who has ever walked, or will walk, upon this planet (Except for Yehoshua ha Mashiach) – thru Whom I am a FORGIVEN sinner.
Nonetheless, as a mere human, I am in no condition to judge anyone. The content of The Letters, therefore, represent my personal experiences, as well as the lessons I have learned at our Master’s knee. I sincerely strive to refrain from judging in these teachings.
The second series of letters are addressed to, “Dear Disciple”. These letters, therefore, present a natural progression of communication between the teacher and those who have found Yehoshua ha Mashiach as their personal Messiah, Master and King.
Unashamedly, I must confess that as a whole, discipleship training is the primary thrust of these writings. Therefore, it is understandable why those who already know Yehoshua personally, would want to begin their studies in the latter letters.
Except for the reading of Letter #22, however, which might be read first, I strenuously recommend that The Letters be read in sequence. An intimacy is developed throughout these writings, between the author and the reader. Skipping letters removes that intimacy.
More importantly, the foundation laid within the first ten letters is crucial to understanding the entire series. Furthermore, the first ten letters clearly show the methods, motivation and mannerisms of this teacher.
The Letters of Faith™ – Neglectful Failure of the ‘false church’:
In neglecting to maintain the full teaching of the Inerrant Word of Elohim (with power and authority), as well as in neglecting to empower the body of Yehoshua as priests unto Him, the ‘false church’, especially in the last one hundred years, has systematically abandoned the Apostolic teachings of the first century, and has chosen instead to produce spiritless, lifeless, powerless, uneducated “converts”, to various systems of belief.
Sadly, today, those various systems of belief have no foundation in anything other than what is modern, acceptable, accommodating and entertaining to a humanistic society.
And the failure of the ‘church’, to adhere to the full truth of Scripture, is now reflected in the worldwide failures we are witnessing throughout society. The failure of the ‘church’, in upholding strict standards of morality and spirituality, has impacted humanity quite negatively, because Satan now battles unhindered for the lives, minds and souls of a society run amok.
Put plainly and bluntly, these Letters are intended for The EKKLESIA; for The Body of Yehoshua, and are designed to feed and nurture His Body! His chosen ones will see, hear and understand.
The Letters of Faith™ – Scripture IS the Inerrant Word of Elohim:
With that said, please understand that in speaking of the Inerrant Word of Elohim, I am speaking of the complete reliability of Elohim’s written Word (Scripture; the Bible) as it was originally inspired.
Aside from a personal relationship with Yehoshua, and the indwelling of The Holy Spirit, therefore, another basic foundation to Discipleship is the fervent belief that the Bible contains the absolute, objective truth, as revealed by Elohim. In every area that the Bible touches any and every topic, Scripture is without error, not only when it speaks of values and spiritual matters, but it is also without error when it speaks of history and the cosmos.
That is a WATERSHED teaching today!
In his book, The Great Evangelical Disaster, Dr. Francis Schaeffer describes a watershed thus:
“One time I was on a high rock ridge, with a valley on both sides. There was snow on the ground along that ridge. The snow was lying there unbroken, a seeming unity. However, that unity was an illusion, for it lay along a great divide; it lay along a watershed. One portion of the snow when it melted would flow into one valley. The snow which lay close beside would flow into another valley when it melted…
On that particular ridge, the melting snow which flows down one side of that ridge goes down into a valley, into a small river, and then down into the Rhine River. The Rhine then flows on through Germany and the water ends up in the cold waters of the North Sea. The water from the snow that started out so close along that watershed on the other side of the ridge, when this snow melts, drops off sharply down the ridge into the Rhone Valley. This water flows into Lake Geneva, and then goes down below that into the Rhone River which flows through France and into the warm waters of the Mediterranean.
The snow lies along that watershed, unbroken, as a seeming unity. But when it melts, where it ends in its destinations is literally a thousand miles apart. That is a watershed. That is what a watershed is. A watershed divides. A clear line can be drawn between what seems at first to be the same or at least very close, but in reality ends in very different situations. In a watershed there is a line.”
The Letters of Faith™ – ARE A WATERSHED TEACHING!
Although more than 30 years old, The Letters of Faith™ remain a watershed teaching today! Throughout these pages, therefore, you will find dividing lines drawn between today’s church and society in general, and Elohim’s Word.
This is so, because the world, the church and society, has abandoned the fact that absolute truth exists! The inerrant nature of Scripture has been totally abandoned! And yet, good and evil exist! Right and wrong exist! We see evil and wrongdoing every day in our lives… Therefore, I will take every opportunity to draw the appropriate line in the sand in defense of the Word of Elohim – in His love – for our salvation and disciplined growth.
Failure of the church – and society:
Aside from the complete failure to maintain and uphold the Inerrant Word of Elohim, the church, and society, have also failed to fully believe their Creator, and have thereby missed the mark, in many significant ways.
The Letters of Faith™ – The matter of Abortion:
As an example of this failure, permit me to begin with just one very pressing matter, because this issue is truly vital: Bluntly stated, many professing “christian’s” and “christian denominations” (churches) support, or at least find no fault in, ABORTION?
Here is our second watershed issue then, and our second line in the sand, because (plainly stated) “You cannot believe in, or support the legality of, or endorse in any way, the act of abortion, and still consider yourself to be a disciple! (See Psalm 139 to begin)…
Elohim seeks dynamic disciples who live for His glory. History clearly shows an endless stream of countless generations of would-be disciples, who have become lifeless listeners, with humanistic moorings. These are people who appear content in their role as Sunday morning spectators; who accommodate everything deemed “appropriate” by society, in spite of Elohim’s Word.
They are ships without sails, driven solely by the winds of whim…
The Letters of Faith™ – An Awakening today:
As we approach the end time period though, Elohim’s call is causing many souls to grow increasingly uneasy with their assigned role within the ‘church’. Elohim is driving these listless onlookers to search for truthful answers and powerful applications. The Letters of Faith™ are a product of one disciple’s attempt to help those who are seeking to know the truth about Elohim and His Word.
The Letters, therefore, teach about the fullness of fellowship with our Heavenly Father through His Son, Yehoshua ha Mashiach. We not only help to find His truth, The Letters actually strive to teach how we, as redeemed sinners, can LIVE that truth in our daily walk with Him.
Abortion is an issue vital to the living of that truth in our daily walk with Him!
The Letters of Faith™ – Motivation (expanded);
The primary motivation in writing these letters, and submitting them in this format, then, is because Yehoshua, thru The Holy Spirit, has laid a burden on my heart for His Truth, and for His body (the Ekklesia).
Too many false doctrines have permeated our world, turning too many hearts away from Yehoshua; our Master and Redeemer. The Letters then, are an appeal to the body of Messiah to trim their lamps and prepare for the eminent return of our King.
What is Discipleship?
Furthermore, the discipleship process is unheard of today. Those who would suppress a believer from walking in the fullness of the power and authority of Elohim (known in the Bible as Nicolaitans) have taught for generations that most of the gifts are dead; have allowed the undisciplined use of the gifts they do permit within their assemblies; have taught that repentance from sin is no longer necessary; or have turned away those disciples who dare challenge their false authority and incorrect teachings.
In His rebuke of the Nicolaitans though (Revelation 2:6,15) Yehoshua spoke directly to the end time Ekklesia, and in His chastisement, we find the hope that we can overcome our complacency, repent from our apostasy and become the true harvest reapers we are meant to be. Why? Because we are that end time Ekklesia!
The Letters of Faith™ – Answering the Great Commission:
The Great Commission (Matthew 28:18-20) has been ignored for far too long, but Elohim’s Prophetic Word dictates that the faithful development of disciples must ultimately overtake the conceited approach of expansion via converts. Presently, soldiers in Yehoshua’s army are undisciplined and untrained, leaving the world ripe for the deceptions of the Antichrist.
The Letters of Faith are designed to raise the banner of discipleship unto Yehoshua once again, so that Elohim’s soldiers may be fully trained and armed for the battle in which we are already engaged. Do you understand that? The battle is already engaged!
The question begs asking though: Where are you in this fight for the glory and majesty of our Master, Messiah and King? Where are you in this battle for the souls of HIS children?
The Letters of Faith™ – The Topical Concordance:
A topical concordance has been developed especially for these teachings. This concordance is provided to offer Scriptural support for every conclusion, thought and nuance revealed within these writings.
This concordance aids in upholding Scripture’s law of validation, and is a very useful study guide.
Second, I believe Yehoshua was serious when He uttered the Great Commission. The concordance was developed, therefore, to help every reader gain an in-depth insight into numerous significant topics, quickly. By making the study easier, it is hoped that personal growth could be aided, while enabling each individual to use that gained insight for the training of other new disciples.
Always verify and validate – every teaching you hear.
I strenuously encourage every true Seeker and Disciple to study the concordance materials. I also insist, though, that any and every other tool available be utilized as well, in order to faithfully discern the truth of every matter discussed within The Letters.
The Letters of Faith™ – Our Spirits Need Feeding:
It is no longer an acceptable practice, in light of the times in which we live, to remain involved in ministries that do not faithfully and Scripturally feed our spirits, either in teaching, or in the practice of a disciples’ true walk.
It is no longer acceptable to support or uplift any ministry, either financially or in the use of our spiritual gifts, which is more concerned with building empires than with feeding, clothing and spiritually enabling the poor, downtrodden, orphaned or widowed. We must focus upon tending to Elohim’s End Time Harvest, or with assisting those faithful disciples who are doing these things.
It is wholly unacceptable, in Elohim’s sight, to support any establishment more concerned with programs than people; personal gain over forwarding the Gospel message; walking denominational lines instead of promoting the love and truthful Word of Elohim; being politically correct instead of being Scripturally accurate (regardless of the social consequences); or being lukewarm – neither hot nor cold, instead of being on fire for Yehoshua and for His body.
Not ear tickling:
Scripture screams for these matters to be heard, but these are not ear-tickling issues. The Letters, while personal, are never meant as an ear tickling device. Succinctly stated, if Elohim is not being fully served in a ministry, someone else is, and that someone else is Satan… The Letters of Faith™ serve Elohim with every beat of our heart – and every word written.
Beware the false teachings and false teachers:
Throughout the institutional church, we can find littered bodies of babies in Messiah, who with much bravado and fanfare have been led to the “throne of God in Jesus Christ”, and have then been allowed to spiritually starve as they squirm for a drop of spiritual milk or a morsel of spiritual food.
Throughout the institutional church, we find faithful children of Elohim crying for the meat of His Word, and for fulfillment in their spiritual walk, only to be frustrated by the false teachers and preachers who would have us believe that our knowledge is inadequate; our gifts either dead or undisciplined, and our fulfillment already achieved.
Throughout many institutions, we can find warriors of “The Way”, who have discerned a false teaching, and confronted the prophets of Babylon, only to be battered for questioning the long-standing theological beliefs of a particular congregation or denomination. And once belittled, they have been told to mature, learn to compromise over the lesser issues, or leave.
Throughout the institutional church, we can find seats that were once occupied by faithful, reverent believers, who, not denying the fellowship, are weary of continued abuse at the hands of the Nicolaitans, and who are fatigued by the unscriptural and unholy practices presented today in the name of Jesus Christ.
These are brethren who have discerned the presence of Satan at the pulpit, and who now wander the wilderness in search for unity with the EKKLESIA. In an ever-increasing throwaway society, however, these faithful believers are being replaced so rapidly by “new flesh”, attracted by high profile ear tickling programs, that their absence seemingly goes unnoticed. Believe me, beloved, YEHOSHUA NOTICES!
The reality of 21st Century false teachings:
It is vital that every disciple know that thousands of beloved brethren around the world are suffering tremendously at the hands of the false shepherds, false prophets, false religions and oppressive governments. Nevertheless, the message is the same: Pastors who desire our energy and money, but who care little about our walk with Yehoshua, or the fulfillment of our life purpose, have overtaken the realm of religion under the guise of being “ministers of God”.
These false practitioners have literally surrendered the body of the Risen Messiah entrusted to them, over to Satan. Although piling mounds of converts, these false leaders have no intent of making disciples for Messiah.
Greater need for The Letters today, than when developed 30 years ago!
The intent of the ministry of The Letters, therefore, and the primary purpose for expanding our ministry to include The Exalted Name Bible™, is to help feed the flock, eliminate the pain and suffering within the Body, and aid in the cessation of deception.
I believe the Ekklesia (The true Church) desires to hear everything that Elohim has revealed, and is truly awakening to His desires. The questions answered within The Letters of Faith, and the issues discussed therein, are in direct response to our struggle to comprehend the noticeable differences between what we see in the world and hear in the religious (Babylonian) institutions, and what we believe we are hearing Elohim say throughout Scripture. The truth, be it known, will show the differences to be enormous and Life-Altering!
I do not mean to offend, but the truth is not always easy or agreeable.
I take a very firm position against “religious institutions”. Please do not be offended! Watershed issues exist: The gifts of The Holy Spirit are not dead; Our Risen Messiah LIVES TODAY; and the fullness of these matters are resurrected within The Letters of Faith – for all 21st century seekers.
The EKKLESIA (Church / Body of Messiah) is my burden. I seek for the body be everything Yehoshua deserves and desires. If you are walking faithfully with Elohim, my remarks will not upset you one iota. If, however, my approach tweaks at your righteousness, and causes you to reevaluate your walk, then I have accomplished one of my goals.
While my desire, and my sincere hope is that The Letters will assist every individual in their walk with Elohim, so that we may all hear, “Well done, good and faithful servant” (Matthew 25:21 ENB), too much work lies before us to allow the sowers of weeds to interfere with the harvest.
The Letters of Faith™ – Nothing subordinates Scripture.
I will not permit political or religious correctness to subordinate Scripture. Nor will I allow faithlessness to interfere with this display of Elohim’s love. If you have sincere questions, please write. Otherwise, simply turn away. Thru the guidance of The Holy Spirit, our hope is to turn hearts back to Elohim, thru the fullness of His Word.
BUT, There is No claim of inerrancy here:
There is no claim of inerrancy to accompany The Letters. Nor is there a claim of divine appointment or inspiration. The Word of Elohim is the backbone of The Letters of Faith™, and I believe the greatest asset of this work is the concordance that accompanies every letter. Additionally, a complete Topical Concordance is offered as a separate item on this website. As a tool, the concordance can simplify your search on individual topics.
Not your usual teaching tool:
Admittedly, The Letters of Faith™ are unlike any other publication you have visited or read. The Letters are not brief, and the lessons actually require work on your part.
I do not anticipate writing many additional letters at this time. My focus today has moved to The Exalted Name Bible™, through which I may write short missives on occasion – as moved by The Holy Spirit.
Your questions and thoughts are coveted though, because the goal of assisting all seekers and disciples will not stop until Yehoshua returns, or until He decides to take me home, whichever comes first. If you are being spiritually fed by this work, I encourage you to drop me a note. You may just be an encouragement to me as well…
Thank you for visiting The Letters of Faith. I sincerely pray that Yehoshua blesses your time here. I remain faithfully and humbly your servant in Yehoshua our Messiah,
The Letters of Faith™
Copyright © 1988-2021,
All Rights Reserved Worldwide
Lawrence T. Vosen, PhD.
All Scripture used within The Letters of Faith are taken from
The Exalted Name Bible™ ENB™
Copyright © 2011-2021,
2nd Edition © 2018-2021
Lawrence T. Vosen, PhD. Used with permission.